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analysis, though simple for the adult, are not simple for the child.
The real beginning is with sentences, not with sounds, with
wholes, not with parts. In the second place, he failed to deaL
adequately with the more advanced stages of learning. Here he
made no attempt to determine the right subjects to be taught,
or the right order in teaching them, but contented himself with
modifying the accepted school subjects by emphasizing the need
for personal acquaintance with the facts under consideration.
This lack of system is connected with the assumption he makes
that definition is the culminating point in mental completeness.
In accordance with this view, his own teaching tended to resolve
itself into the imparting of knowledge on a number of disconnected
topics, ending in isolated definitions. The object lesson, which
was one of his inventions, illustrates this weakness. Now, while
this method is comparatively unobjectionable with young children,
nothing short of knowledge in connected form is required in the
later stages. The more developed mind cannot be satisfied with
the definition of individual facts as though they stood by them-
selves, but must connect the facts and their definitions with a
whole system of facts and definitions. Once this is recognized,
new problems arise for the educator. He is forced to ask, as
Pestalozzi never asked, What groups of facts are best for training
the mind of the pupil who has mastered the elements of instruc-
tion ? That question in its turn raises questions of method
beyond the range of Pestalozzi's vision.


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BELL, A.: J. M. D. Meiklejohn, An Old Educational Reformer, Edinburgh,

KANT, E.: The Educational Theory of Immanuel Kant, translated by E. F.
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LA CHALOTAIS, L.: Essay on National Education, translated by H. R. Clark,
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J. Delvaille, La Chalotais, Educateur, Paris, 1910;   A. Ptnloche, La
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LANCASTER, J.: Improvements in Education, London, 1805.
D. Salmon* Joseph Lancaster, London, 1904*